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Is knowledge measurable? If so what are the units of measurement? Are there degrees of understanding? What are the criteria?


What's in a name? or: est nomen omen?


Human understanding versus 'machine understanding'. Varieties of understanding: u. language/symbols or u. real objects/processes/actions (is understanding mathematics special?). Language understanding is not possible without understanding 'reality', i.e. symbols/words/narratives are 'grounded' in reality.


The meaning of symbols emerges from acts of communication, just as life emerged from the interaction of atoms and molecules by "selective amplification" of features. Evolution is the widening of semantic spaces.


Is "thinking" (or rather: "thinking we are thinking") the result of communication? Would a Kaspar Hauser ever become aware of his own thoughts?


Free Will(1): Bodies (structured matter) do what their structures make them do. The structures of human bodies entail the capability of (reflecting upon themselves and) assigning values to what they (can) do, to compare, rank, and choose.


A truism: computers are as smart as we program them to be. Suppose we find out how to build/program computers so that they can (somehow) ground themselves in the real physical world (with sensory experiences possibly going far beyond ours or at least different from ours). Hence they could outsmart humans just as humans - once the biological machinery was in place - outsmarted the rest of nature. Or would they?


Hilbert's programme failed but it failed in a grandiose way: it boiled down to computer programs.